Electrotherapy is an alternative medicine, which uses low-frequency pulse currents for tissue repair, muscle stimulation, treatment of inflammation and pain of the musculoskeletal system and peripheral nervous system and many others. The main idea of these interventions is that the application of low voltage and can increase the natural ability of the body to stimulate, guide and control, healing and regenerative processes.
This type of medical equipment is widely used in physiotherapy and rehabilitation
Electrotherapy medical devices was invented in 1855 by Guillaume Benjamin Duchenne de Boulogne, a French neurologist. He began his experiments in 1835 with therapeutic electro., And in 1842 in Paris, he developed not invasive medical equipment for muscle stimulation. Thanks to electricity, he also discovered that smiles caused by true happiness are responsible not only the muscles around the mouth and around the eyes.
In terms of electricity, the human body behaves as an electrolyte solution, the ions present in the body is "moving" under the action of electric current.
Through the use of specialized medical equipment, namely apparatus for electrotherapy can be generated multiple types current:
- Galvanic (DC) - a constant intensity over time in the same direction;
- Variable monopolar currents - intensity changes periodically, but do not change direction in time;
- Variable bipolar currents - periodically changing intensity and direction over time.
The effects of different types of electricity can be summarized according to their specific biological effects:
- Iontophoresis - used current with constant intensity;
- Electrostimulation - used sinusoidal, rectangular, triangular and exponential variables monopolar currents;
- Analgesic activity - a low frequency currents, varying pulse shape (rectangular, triangular, exponential);
- Trophic effect - influences with DC.
Medical equipment generating a galvanic current affecting the tissues between the two polar enhances metabolism, improves trophic tissue, increases cellular metabolism, improves blood supply. Medical equipment Document galvanic current bearer of drugs in the body.
Indications for treatment with galvanic current:
• Diseases of the peripheral system;
• Diseases and consequences of CNS disorders; • Neurosis, insomnia; • Illnesses and injuries of the musculoskeletal system; • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; • Chronic inflammation in various organs and tissues; • Gynecological diseases; • Dental diseases and others.
In modern fizioterterapiya and rehabilitation using the selection of a number of variable parameters monopolar currents - a form of current pulse pause length, frequency, modulation and current. The crossing of variables monopolar low frequency currents in the human body are in force phenomena of electrophoresis, electrolysis ion membrane dynamic processes. Due to the impulse nature of electricity supplied from the apparatus for electrotherapy and trigger other physiological mechanisms that depend on the specified parameters of these currents.
Indications elektrotrapiya with low-frequency monopolar currents:
• Damage to peripheral nerves by traumatic, inflammatory or degenerative nature
• applying pulses with an exponential form, duration, big break, bit rate.
• At inaktivitetni Hypotrophy, muscle hipotonii, insufitsientnost dorsal muscle in scoliosis and others.
- Applying rectangular pulses are of short duration (10ms) and a higher frequency (20-50Hz). Athos smooth muscle. Apply exponential pulses with duration (200-300ms) and long pauses (1s).
• Miogelozi, degenerative changes in the spine and joints, post-traumatic edema
- Apply to rectangular pulses with 10ms and frequency to 50Hz.
• In the pain syndromes in vegetative disorders, pulmonary diseases and others.
The main physiological effect when alternating currents is bipolar painkillers. Depending on the location of the electrodes of the device for electrotherapy are improving peripheral, cerebral, coronary and renal blood flow. Trophic their action consists in stimulating the processes of metabolism and improve the functional state of neuromuscular apparatus. Stimulate the regeneration of peripheral nerves.
Indications for electrotherapy with an average frequency bipolar currents:
• Diseases of the nervous system accompanied with pain; autonomic and motor disturbances - myelitis, neuritis, neuralgia; • Injuries to the musculoskeletal system - distorsio, degenerative dystrophic disease of the joints and spine; • disorders of peripheral circulation, early cerebral atherosclerosis, transient disorders of cerebral circulation, hypertension with renal syndrome; • Ulcer disease and chronic gastritis; • Bronchial asthma; • Eye diseases - iritis, keratitis, scleritis, corneal ulcers, optic neuritis and the like.
Contraindications to the use of electrotherapy - suppurative inflammations, acute and subacute thrombophlebitis, a tendency to bleeding, cardiovascular disease at the stage of severe decompensation, feverish conditions, malignant neoplasms, active tuberculosis, post fracture callus insufficient, individual intolerance to electric current and etc.